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Before Sen's work, these had been viewed as only the ends of development; luxuries afforded to countries that focus on increasing income. However, Sen argues that the increase in real freedoms should be both the ends and the means of development.
He elaborates upon this by illustrating the closely interconnected natures of the five main freedoms as he believes that expansion of one of those freedoms can lead to expansion in another one as well.
In this regard he discusses the correlation between social opportunities of education and health and how both of these complement economic and political freedoms pdf file gujarati books a healthy and well-educated person is better suited to make informed economic decisions and be involved in fruitful political demonstrations etc.
A comparison is also drawn between China and India to illustrate this interdependence of freedoms.
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Both countries were working towards developing their economies, China since and India since Despite the fact that India opened its economy about a decade later, it pdf file gujarati books able to see more rapid development as it had always been pro health and education so its population was much more productive than that of China, where health and education was unavailable to about half of the population.
Welfare economics seeks to evaluate economic policies in terms of their effects on the well-being of the community.
Sen, who devoted his career to such issues, was called the "conscience of his profession". His influential monograph Collective Choice and Social Welfarewhich addressed problems related to individual rights including formulation of the liberal pdf file gujarati booksjustice and equity, majority rule, and the availability of information about individual conditions, inspired researchers to turn their attention to issues of basic welfare.
Sen devised methods of measuring poverty that yielded useful information for improving economic conditions for the poor.
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For instance, his theoretical work on inequality provided an explanation for why there are fewer women than men in India  and China despite the fact that in the West and in poor but medically unbiased countries, women have lower pdf file gujarati books rates at all pdf file gujarati books, live longer, and make a slight majority of the population.
Sen claimed that this skewed ratio results from the better health treatment and childhood opportunities afforded boys in those countries, as well as sex-selective abortions.
Governments and international organizations handling food crises were influenced by Sen's work. His views encouraged policy makers to pay attention not only to alleviating immediate suffering but also to finding ways to replace the lost income of the poor—for example through public works—and to maintain stable prices pdf file gujarati books food.
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A vigorous defender of political freedom, Sen believed that famines do not occur in functioning democracies because their leaders must be more pdf file gujarati books to the demands of the citizens.
In order for economic growth to be achieved, he argued, social reforms—such as improvements in education and public health—must precede economic reform.
In opposition to Pdf file gujarati books but also earlier justice theoreticians Immanuel KantJean-Jacques Rousseau or David Humeand inspired by the philosophical works of Adam Smith and Mary WollstonecraftSen developed a theory that is both comparative and realizations-oriented instead of being transcendental and institutional.
However, he still regards institutions and processes as being important. As an alternative to Rawls's veil of ignoranceSen chose the thought experiment pdf file gujarati books an impartial spectator as the basis of his theory of justice. He also stressed the importance of public discussion understanding democracy in the sense of John Stuart Mill and a focus on people's capabilities an approach that he had co-developedincluding the notion of universal human rights, in evaluating various states with regard to justice.
Professional career[ edit ] Sen began his career both as a teacher and a research scholar in the Department of Economics, Jadavpur University as a Professor of Economics in He spent two years in that position. He taught as Professor of Economics between and at the Pdf file gujarati books School of Economics where he completed his magnum opus Collective Choice and Social Welfare in