One of the important experiments that involved laser alignment and determining if there was ether in space was the Michelson-Morley Interferometer Experiment. Michelson, with the collaboration of E. W. Morley, constructed a new interferometer with multiple mirrors and a pathlength about 10 times longer. This device. You will use the Michelson interferometer to observe the interference of two light sources: a HeNe laser and a sodium lamp. You will study interference patterns.


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One of the important experiments that involved laser alignment and determining if there was ether in space was the Michelson-Morley Interferometer Experiment. To gain an appreciation of the skill needed to align a laser beam and to use the understanding of refraction and reflection of light to create a Michelson-Morley Interferometer.

Compared with Lyot filters, which use birefringent elements, Michelson interferometers have a relatively low temperature sensitivity. On the negative side, Michelson interferometers have michelson morley interferometer relatively restricted wavelength range, and require use of prefilters which restrict transmittance.

Typical optical setup of single point OCT Another application of the Michelson Interferometer is in optical coherence michelson morley interferometer OCTa medical imaging technique using low-coherence interferometry to provide tomographic visualization of internal tissue microstructures.

As seen in Fig.

One interferometer arm is focused onto the tissue sample and scans the sample in an X-Y longitudinal raster pattern. The other interferometer arm is bounced off a reference mirror.

Michelson–Morley experiment

Reflected michelson morley interferometer from the tissue sample is combined with reflected light from the reference. Because of the low coherence of the light source, interferometric signal is observed only over a limited depth of sample. X-Y scanning therefore records one thin optical slice of the sample at a michelson morley interferometer.

By performing multiple scans, moving the reference mirror between each scan, an entire three-dimensional image of the tissue can be reconstructed.

Michelson-Morley Experiment -- from Eric Weisstein's World of Physics

Atmospheric and Space Applications[ edit ] The Michelson Interferometer has played an important role in studies of the upper atmosphererevealing temperatures and winds, employing michelson morley interferometer space-borne, and ground-based instruments, by measuring the Doppler widths and shifts in the spectra of airglow and aurora.

The instrument was an all-glass field-widened achromatically and thermally compensated phase-stepping Michelson interferometer, along with a bare CCD detector that imaged the airglow limb through the interferometer. A sequence of michelson morley interferometer images was processed to derive the wind velocity for two orthogonal view directions, yielding the horizontal wind vector.

The principle of using a polarizing Michelson Interferometer as a narrow band filter was first described by Evans [22] who developed a birefringent photometer where the incoming light is split into two orthogonally polarized components by a polarizing beam splitter, sandwiched between two halves of a Michelson cube.


This led to michelson morley interferometer first polarizing wide-field Michelson interferometer described by Title and Ramsey [23] which was used for solar observations; and led to the development of a refined instrument applied to measurements of oscillations in the sun's atmosphere, employing a network of observatories around the Earth known as the Global Oscillations Network Group GONG.

If not, the crests and troughs of the light waves in the two arms would arrive and interfere slightly out of synchronization, producing a michelson morley interferometer of intensity. Of course, the same effect would be achieved if the arms of the interferometer were not of the same length, but these could be adjusted accurately by looking for the intensity peak as one arm michelson morley interferometer moved.

A bit of history: Michelson

Changing the orientation of the instrument should then show fringes. Although Michelson and Morley were expecting measuring different speeds of light in each direction, they found no discernible fringes indicating a different speed in any orientation or at any position of the Earth in its annual orbit around the Sun.

Because light can travel through a vacuum, it was michelson morley interferometer that even a vacuum must be filled with aether. Because the speed of light is so great, and because material bodies pass through the aether without obvious friction or drag, it was assumed michelson morley interferometer have a highly unusual combination of properties.

Designing experiments to test the properties of the aether was a high priority of 19th century physics.

Laser Alignment & Creation of a Michelson-Morley Interferometer

The Earth is in motion, so two main possibilities were considered: Eventually, Fresnel's idea michelson morley interferometer an almost stationary aether was preferred because it appeared to be confirmed by the Fizeau experiment and the aberration of star light. A depiction of the concept of the "aether wind" According to the stationary and the partially-dragged aether hypotheses, Earth and the aether are in relative motion, implying that a so-called "aether wind" Fig.

Although it would be possible, in theory, for the Earth's motion to match that of the aether at one moment in time, it was not possible for the Earth to michelson morley interferometer at rest with respect to the aether at all times, because of the variation in both the direction michelson morley interferometer the speed of the motion.