Hematology is the branch of medicine concerned with the study of the prevention, cause, diagnosis, and treatment of diseases related to blood. Hematologic. Synonym(s): Blood Diseases / Hematological Diseases / Blood Disease / Disease, Blood / Disease, Hematologic / Disease, Hematological / Diseases, Blood. In addition to haematological malignancies, such as leukaemias and lymphomas, children and adolescents can suffer blood disorder, that are not classified as.
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The prevalence of asymptomatic protein C deficiency has been reported to be between 1 in and 1 in healthy individuals, whereas the prevalence hematologic diseases clinically significant protein C deficiency has been estimated at 1 in 20 patients. Another systematic review reported a pooled OR of 6.
Hereditary protein S deficiency hematologic diseases an autosomal dominant disorder with almost different PROS1 mutations resulting in loss of function identified.
Haematological Diseases – Blood Disorders
The most common mutation in the FV gene is a single point mutation that results in the replacement of Arg in one of the activated protein C cleavage sites with a Gln.
Its prevalence depends on geographic location and ethnic background. Antiphospholipid syndrome will be reviewed here. Other less common causes include myeloproliferative hematologic diseases, nephrotic syndrome, paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria; and iatrogenic etiologies, such hematologic diseases chemotherapy for cancer, hormonal treatment for infertility, and surgical procedures.
Antiphospholipid Syndrome Antiphospholipid syndrome is an autoimmune disorder characterized by the clinical association of antiphospholipid antibody with a condition of hypercoagulability, and poses high risk for both VTE and arterial thrombosis.
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The latter might be explained by antibody-mediated proinflammatory and procoagulant effects exerted directly on endothelial cells. The diagnosis of inherited thrombophilias can hematologic diseases approached employing the following steps: All causes of acquired thrombophilias should be excluded before classifying a person with abnormal test results as having an inherited thrombophilia.
Hematologic diseases anticoagulant thromboprophylaxis is not recommended in asymptomatic patients with inherited thrombophilias because of the increased risk of hemorrhage.
Heparin or low-molecular-weight heparin should be considered strongly for thromboprophylaxis when individuals with inherited thrombophilias and prior arterial thrombosis find themselves in high-risk settings, including major surgery, trauma, or management of pregnancy, labor, and delivery.
The initial management of coronary arterial thrombosis in patients with hematologic diseases inherited thrombophilia should proceed according to the standard of care, with anticoagulant and platelet-directed therapy as indicated.
Consideration of long-term anticoagulant therapy must be individualized in hematologic diseases absence of randomized studies. Patients who are persistently positive for antiphospholipid antibodies, and who have a documented history of either VTE or arterial thromboembolism, are at increased risk of recurrence.
Long-term oral anticoagulant therapy is the mainstay of treatment, with a target international normalized ratio hematologic diseases 2.
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HIT occurs more frequently in surgical hematologic diseases than in medical patients, and more often with unfractionated heparin than with low molecular weight heparin.
Two principal criteria are essential for establishing a clinical diagnosis: Detection of HIT antibodies is necessary, but hematologic diseases sufficient, for the diagnosis because only a subset of individuals who develop heparin antibodies actually develop HIT.
Heparin cessation and initiation of an hematologic diseases anticoagulant should occur immediately after clinical suspicion is aroused and even before the result of hematologic diseases serologic test becomes available. Furthermore, it should be initiated with concurrent nonheparin anticoagulation and without bolus dosing.
Microangiopathic hemolytic anemia ensues as the red blood cells pass through the affected vessels and break into fragments called schistocytes. Clopidogrel-associated TTP hematologic diseases occurs within 2 weeks of drug initiation.
The survival rate for patients with clopidogrel-associated TTP is approximately Glucocorticoids, cyclosporine, vincristine, splenectomy, and, more recently, rituximab hematologic diseases antibody to CD20 have all been used in combination with plasma exchange to treat TTP, although randomized clinical hematologic diseases data are lacking.
Although the development of autoantibodies against platelet glycoproteins remains central in the pathophysiology of ITP, several abnormalities involving the cellular mechanisms of immune modulation have been identified.
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Even if the platelet count is low, myocardial infarction and ischemic stroke can occur in some patients. The basic diagnostic approach to ITP includes a patient hematologic diseases, physical examination, complete blood count, detection of antiplatelet antibodies and examination of a peripheral blood smear.
Bone marrow aspiration in patients older than 60 years is appropriate to rule out leukemia, infiltrative disease and aplastic anemias. Hematologic diseases of patients with ITP must take into hematologic diseases the age of the patient, the severity of the illness, and the anticipated natural history.