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However, its full-blown theoretization and systematization as a moral doctrine was brought about by the enthusiastic support and fayda maksimizasyonu it received in the modern era, probably because of fayda maksimizasyonu fact that the utilitarian approach to human happiness, conduct or society fits very well within the principles and logic of capitalism.
The economical and social views of such utilitarian theorists as Hume, A.
Fayda maksimizasyonu pdf files
Mill are regarded as critical contributions to and milestones in the development of capitalism. Utilitarianism, with its fayda maksimizasyonu of the greatest happiness of the greatest number, stands as one of those theories that believes in the fayda maksimizasyonu of a shared conception of good life and promises its adherents a good and harmonious life.
Neverthless, upon close and comprehensive analysis, this claim reveals itself to be an abstract, empty and groundless promise. Exposing how and why utilitarianism fails fayda maksimizasyonu in its most basic prognostics constitutes the fundamental object of fayda maksimizasyonu dissertation.
Microeconomics I | Graduate School of Social Sciences
Utilitarianism is a consequentalist moral theory. According to consequentialism, correct moral fayda maksimizasyonu is determined solely by a cost-benefit analysis of an action s consequences.
An action is morally right if the consequences of that action are more 9 favorable than unfavorable. For consequentialism the principle or motive that underlies any sort of behaviour is not the key to the merits or flaws in that behaviour.
Behaviour must be assessed independently of the agent concerned. The moral value of the behaviour must be judged solely by considering the obvious consequences of the action. Consequentialist principles require that one tallies the good and bad consequences of an action and then determines whether the total good consequences outweigh the total bad consequences.
If the good consequences are greater, then the action is morally convenient; if the bad consequences are greater then the action proves to be morally improper.
Consequentialism does not itself say what kinds of consequences are good. Hence people can agree on consequentialism while disagreeing about what kind of outcome is good or bad. The most well-known consequentialist theory stands to be utilitarianism.
Utilitarianism is the theory that judges acts by the net amount of pleasure or happiness they produce. Since pleasure or happiness is not the only possible intrinsic good, there can be consequentialists who are not utilitarian.
Yet, the most traditional view among consequentialists is that the only kind of result that is good in itself is happiness. In eighteenth and early nineteenth century, it had been invoked by British philosophers who transformed it into a full-fledged theory.
Bentham was the first philosopher to fully formulate a systematic utilitarian position. Bentham proposed that one ought to tally the consequences of an action on a case by case basis and determine whether the action fayda maksimizasyonu morally proper fayda maksimizasyonu improper.
This shows that Bentham s utilitarianism is a hedonistic one. Thus happiness is equated by Bentham with the attainment of pleasure and the avoidance of pain. The term hedonism, from the Greek word hdon for pleasure, identifies pleasure and pain as the only important elements of morality.
They are the sole ultimate ends that human actions pursue or eschew. Hedonists tend to focus on hedonistic theories of value, and especially of well-being the good life for the one living it.
As a theory of value, hedonism states that all and only pleasure is intrinsically valuable and all and only pain is intrinsically worthless. What Bentham declares in the very first sentences of his major work, The Principles of Morales and Legislation, plainly consecrates hedonism: Nature has placed mankind under the governance of two sovereign masters, pain and pleasure.
It is for them alone to point out what we ought to do, as well as to determine what we shall do.
It should be pointed out that hedonism doesn t start with the utilitarians.