valles habitados por humanos actúan como barreras, fragmentando la población y dando lugar a la caza furtiva con efectos devastadores. El ejército de mujeres que está frenando la caza furtiva de rinocerontes. H. Saluda a las Mambas Negras. Ellas no tienen miedo a la muerte. Leer: Una cacería furtiva siglo de las luces. Escribir: leer: consumo de arte en masa el sentido y los contenidos realizan la selección de.


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Academic Summary To purchase or authenticate to the full-text of this article, please visit this link: ABSTRACT We evaluated predictions that hunters favor lianas, large seeds, and seeds dispersed by bats, small birds, and caceria furtiva means for seedling banks in caceria furtiva Panama.


We censused trees in 20 1-ha plots and 38, seedlings in the central 64 m. We found significant differences in the species composition of the caceria furtiva bank between nine protected sites in the Barro Colorado Nature Monument and 11 hunted sites in the contiguous Parque Nacional Soberania.

Lianas, species with large seeds, and species with seeds dispersed by bats, small birds, and mechanical means were all overrepresented at hunted sites. caceria furtiva


The latter two findings could also be evaluated relative caceria furtiva the species composition of reproductively mature adults for canopy trees.

The caceria furtiva species present in the seedling bank had significantly heavier seeds than the tree species present as adults at hunted sites but not at protected sites. The caceria furtiva of seed dispersal modes among the species present in the seedling bank did not reflect pre-existing differences in the local species composition of adults.

IUCN Directory of Neotropical Protected Areas - Google книги

We hypothesize that hunting large seed predators favors large seeds by reducing predation and increasing survival. We also hypothesize that the harvest of large birds and mammals that disperse many caceria furtiva favors other caceria furtiva whose seeds are dispersed by bats, small birds, and mechanical means.

This process also favors lianas because the seeds of disproportionate numbers of liana species are dispersed by wind. ABSTRACT Hunting can change abundances of vertebrate seed predators and seed dispersers, causing species-specific changes in seed dispersal and seed predation and altering seedling communities.

What are the consequences of these changes for the adult plant community in the next generation and beyond? Here, I derive equations showing how caceria furtiva seed dispersal reduces plant reproduction by intensifying kin competition, increasing vulnerability to natural enemies, and reducing the proportion of seeds passing through disperser guts.

I parameterize caceria furtiva equations with available empirical data to estimate the likely effects on next-generation abundances.

"caza furtiva" in English

I then consider the indirect effects and longer-term feedbacks of changed seed or adult abundances on reproductive rates due to density-dependent interactions with natural enemies and mutualists, as well as niche differentiation with competitors, and discuss their likely qualitative effects.

The factors limiting seed disperser caceria furtiva seed predator populations in natural and hunted forests emerge as critical for determining the long-term caceria furtiva of hunting on rates of seed dispersal and seed predation.


For example, where seed dispersers are held to a constant abundance by hunters, decreases in the availability of their preferred food plants are expected to lead to increased per-seed dispersal probabilities, potentially to the point of compensating for the initial disperser decline.

I close caceria furtiva discussing the likely reversibility of hunting-induced changes in tropical forests and key questions and directions for future research. RESUMEN La caceria puede cambiar la abundancia de vertebrados caceria furtiva y dispersores de semillas, ocasionando alteraciones especificas de la especie en la predacion y dispersion de semillas y alterando la comunidad de caceria furtiva.